South

[a.k.a "Shackleton's Expedition to the Antarctic"]

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        "SOUTH" 

Sir Ernest Shackleton's
 Glorious Epic of the
       Antarctic.

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Presenting a wonderful and true
story of British pluck, self-sacrifice
and indomitable courage displayed
by a small party of men who set
forth on a voyage of discovery into
the hitherto unexplored lands and
uncharted seas of the great
Antarctic Continent.

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The little ship of the expedition, the
"Endurance," with commander, Sir
Ernest Shackleton, and a crew of
28 men on board, left England
during the fateful month of July,
1914, after Shackleton had offered...

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... his ship, stores and all personnel
to the cause of his country, only
to be told that the authorities
desired that the Expedition, which
had the full support of the
Government, should proceed.

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The leader of the Expedition -
Sir Ernest Shackleton.

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The Captain of the "Endurance" -
      Captain F. Worsley,
      D.S.O., R.D., R.N.R.

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Liet. J. Stenhouse, D.S.C., R.N.R.,
Who commanded the Ross Sea 
ship "Aurora."

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Captain L. Hussey, the Meteoro-
logist, with his banjo, which
Shackleton described as the ship's
"vital mental tonic."

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Shackleton in his Antarctic dress.

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Worsley ready for the fray.

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The "Endurance" leaving Buenos
 Aires on October 27th, 1914.
After sailing from this last port of
call the party received no news
from the outside world until May
20th, 1916.

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The real backbone of the Expedition.
There were over 70 of these dogs -
all procured from North Western
Canada, and the task of feeding and 
housing them was no small matter.

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Dr. Mellroy and Wordie, head of 
the Scientific Staff, grooming the dogs.
All the members of the Expedition
helped at various work.

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Even dogs suffer from mal de mer.
Dr. Macklin administering medicine
to a sufferer, much to the disgust of
all the other dogs, who imagine they
are missing something.

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Smiler - watch carefully and you will
see him smile.

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Hercules, the strongest dog in the 
pack. His condensed breath gives
you some idea of the low temperature
into which the ship sailed.

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Frank Wild - second in command -
       playing with Sue.
Wild's knowledge of the Antarctic
is perhaps more extensive than 
anyone living, he having seen service
with all the modern British
explorers.

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Shackleton at the binnacle
taking sun observations.

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New land was sighted and traced
for over 200 miles, and scores of
huge glaciers were discovered.

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Many days were spent in preparing
for the great work ahead and
when the sun set there was not a
man who had not fully earned his 
night's rest

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Morning brought a rapid change in
the weather, with the "Endurance"
encountering the thick pack ice.

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The ship was used as a battering 
ram for clearing a way through the
floes and very often ice 4 feet thick
was successfully broken up.

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Shackleton going aloft to the "crows
nest" to direct the ship's course
through the ice.

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Shouting down orders through a
megaphone to Worsley, who in turn,
by means of a semaphore, directs 
the man at the wheel.

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Wordie at the wheel,
guiding the ship.

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A phenomenal sight - migration of
       Crab-eater Seals.
They knew by instinct that an 
abnormal season was coming and
flocked North to warmer waters
before the sea froze over.

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One of the many huge ice-bergs
which were encountered. The 
largest seen was 32 miles long and
150 feet in height.

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The Castle berg. This berg drifted
round with the party for close on
9 months, and became quite a
familiar mark.

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The "Endurance" working her way
through an open lead (a lane of
water between consolidated pack
ice). The ship ploughed through
1,500 miles of this.

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So near and yet so far - The
much desired, but never reached
land.

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A few weeks later, owing to a
sudden unexpected drop in the
temperature, the "Endurance"
became frozen in, and was held
firmly imprisoned in the ice for nine 
months.

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On February 14th, 1915, a small
lead formed a few hundred yards
ahead and a hurried attempt was 
made to cut a channel to enable the 
ship to reach it.

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Poling away the "brash"
  (thin summer ice).

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Cheetham -- the water lily.

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The ship going astern preparatory to
        charging the ice.

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 A moment of intense excitement.
What will be the result of forty-
eight hours of unremitting labour?

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Charging at full steam ahead, with
Sir Ernest Shackleton standing in her 
bows anxiously awaiting the result.

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    All progress at an end.
The plan had failed and like an
imprisoned bird she lies in the hands
of her ruthless captor.

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With the coming of winter and the
fast falling temperature, the leads
froze up almost as quickly as the ice
could be taken from them. All
hope therefore was abandoned and
the ship quickly became frozen in.

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The members of the expedition,
with the exception of Hurley, the
cinematographer.

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  The water supply going aboard.
A little domestic job that had to be 
done each day.
The water was procured in the form
of ice from hummocks near the ship,
which were once salt water, but in
the process of freezing the salt is 
forced out, and fresh ice formed.

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Tom Crean handling with parental
affection a litter of pups born in
the Antarctic.

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Just able to stand up and take
         nourishment.

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The pups in an ice-cave.

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Coming out of their kennels,
  which were made of ice.

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At eight months old the pups were
working for their living and very soon
they developed into the hardest 
workers in the whole pack.

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In harness for the first time. Surly,
the black leader dog on the right, is
the trainer of the pups.

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Worsley and James replenishing the
larder with fresh seal meat.
Whenever seals were seen they were 
killed and cut into strips for feeding 
the dogs.

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        Emperor Penguins.
These birds, weighing approximately
70-90 lbs. each, came up through
the cracks in the ice. For some
reason or other they refused to make
friends with the party.

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       Exercising the dogs.
This afforded pleasure to both man 
and beast, and the three hours daily 
exercise was always looked forward 
to by the dogs.

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The dogs were trained in true 
military style and at the word of 
command would quickly spring to
attention.

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          Home Again.
The dogs being unharnessed and
taken to their kennels. Shackleton
on the left directing.

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Hussy, the smallest member of the
expedition, with Samson, the largest
dog in the pack.

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The fairy-like aspect of the ship
during the long dark winter months.
This wonderful photograph was
taken with the aid of 18 huge
flash-lamps

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Another view showing the magical
effect of the frost on her riggings.

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         Building Pylons.
Owing to the intense darkness of the
winter nights, a circle of pylons was
built around the ship, each being
connected by a wire hawser. These
acted as guides for straying members,
as it was possible for a man to 
become totally lost when only 30
yards away from the ship.

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Obtaining ice for building
      up the pylons.

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Water thrown on quickly cements 
     the whole structure.

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One of the most tantalizing 
diversions of the marooned party -
the motor-sledge. Great hopes were
reposed in this new device, but it
proved entirely unsatisfactory.

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Dredging for deep sea specimens -
a form of exercise for all hands as
well as of great scientific value.

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The net emerging with its "catch."

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Clark, the Expedition's biologist,
removing animalculae from the
depths of the Antarctic Seas.

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   The Beginning of the End.
On August 1st, 1915, a terrific
blizzard sprang up and mighty
blocks of ice, with a pressure of
millions of tons, crushed round the 
ship, smashed the rudder, and set 
her leaking.

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Shackleton and Wild examining the 
         broken rudder.

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Nothing but a miracle could now 
save the ship, for a pressure ridge
formed right beneath the stern and
very soon she was lifted bodily to 
the crest.

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A big effort was made to break
away the ice from the ship's sides,
to relieve the tremendous pressure.

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Huge blocks of ice, weighing many
tons, were pushed up all round her
and the beleaguered ship stood at
bay helpless and with no weapon to
meet her advancing foe.

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The attack of the ice reached its 
climax a few days later, and the ship
was squeezed out and thrown over
to port on the floe at an angle of
thirty degrees. Her stern post was
torn and water began to literally pour 
in.

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Shackleton and Wild going aboard 
     to examine the damage.

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All hope abandoned, orders were
given for the dogs and stores to be
got out immediately on to the floe.

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The boats were hastily lowered and
a camp was made in the vicinity of 
the ship.

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The "James Caird," the small 20 ft. 
boat in which Sir Ernest Shackleton
and his five companions later made
their wonderful 800 miles journey to
South Georgia to obtain help for the
rest of the party marooned on
Elephant Island.

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   The first night on the ice.
Three times the tents were erected
and three times they were struck
and shifted on account of the floe
splitting beneath them. Later a
piece of floe was found that promised 
safe harbourage, and this was named
"Dump Camp."

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Serving out the last issue 
       of clothing.

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One of the tents on the floating ice
in which the party lived for over
five and a half months.

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With the increasing activity of the 
floes, the slow destruction of the ship
continued.

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The morning after the ship was
abandoned. With her forecastle 
head three feet beneath the surface
she would have sunk completely but
for the fact that her sides were
pierced by huge tongues of ice which 
held her up.

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   The last of the "Endurance."
The floes closed upon her as a giant
would crush a match-box, and with
her sides beaten in under the
relentless pressure of ice, she sank
into the 11,000-ft. depths of the
Weddell Sea which for four long
months had sought her destruction.

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All that remained of her a week
 later. (November 27th, 1915).

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The party were now marooned 346
miles from the nearest land and with
the unplumbed sea beneath them.
Members took turns in going out on
expeditions in an endeavour to find
a possible way out to Elephant 
Island.

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Greenstreet setting out with a dog 
team. The dogs were specially
trained to traverse this kind of surface
and showed great skill in taking 
these hummocks.

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It was at this stage of the Expedition
that the real troubles and hardships 
commenced. The ground became
more and more difficult to travel over
and after many days of marching,
"Patience Camp" was established . . .

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. . . on a solid piece of ice on which
the party drifted for six months, until 
eventually the ice broke up and they 
were forced to put to sea - 28 men 
in three boats.

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Then began a race with the driving 
ice. After a six days fight with
death; little sleep or food, they
reached their long sought goal -
Elephant Island. Here 22 of them
with Frank Wild, remained for 4 1/2
months, while Shackleton with five 
companions, all weak and frostbitten,
set out for . . .

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. . . South Georgia, 800 miles away
to obtain help.
They accomplished this perilous 
journey - which will go down in 
history as one of the most wonderful
feats of pluck and endurance ever 
recorded - in less than a month.

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The glacier that Shackleton and his
companions had to scale on reaching
the uninhabited side of South
Georgia.

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The 32-mile journey across the in-
terior of South Georgia Island was 
accomplished in thirty-six hours, and
glaciers and mountain ridges 2,000
feet to 4,000 feet above the sea
level had to be climbed.

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Many quaint birds and beasts were
discovered on the island and the
following remarkable pictures were
obtained only after a good deal of 
time and trouble had been spent.

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        A Young Albatross.
Shackleton and his men made their 
first meal off these birds, when they
landed on South Georgia.

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            Shags.
These birds, who never venture
more than a few miles from the
shore, gave the first indication to the
voyagers that land was near.

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         Giant Petrels.
A most ungainly and quarrelsome 
            specie.

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The scavengers of the southern seas -
Cape Pigeons. Watch them
clearing up the remains of a dead 
whale.

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The end of their goal - Stromness
Whaling Station, which was reached 
on May 20th, 1916.
The men of this little station quickly 
responded to Shackleton's call for
help and a whaler was dispatched
to rescue the three sick men he had 
left on the other side of the island on
landing.

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   Stripping off blubber from
          a huge whale.
The oil obtained from blubber was
used extensively for munition
purposes.

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Sea-elephants bathing.

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A fine specimen of a bull sea-
elephant, evidently feeling very
enraged at something. Notice his 
trunk-like nose.

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Each bull sea-elephant has 70 wives.
       Some of the seventy.
(Shackleton and his men fed on these
animals whilst gaining strength after
their marvellous boat journey).

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A female sea elephant basking in the
sun. The marooned men left on
Elephant Island subsisted almost
entirely on these animals.

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Not a care in the world.

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The end of a perfect day.

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His "friendly" greeting.

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South Georgia boasts more than 
      one Charlie Chaplin.

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King Penguins.

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The foundling.

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Adopted.

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Mother and perambulator combined.

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Only one egg has hatched, but still
          she perseveres.

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A flock of young penguins. Notice
the downy coats of these young birds
which later gives place to beautiful
white feathers.

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An Antarctic "feather-weight"
          contest.

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Setting out for their morning meal.

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When father says swim we all swim.

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After making three gallant but vain
efforts to save his 22 companions
marooned on Elephant Island,
Shackleton succeeded in rescuing
them at his fourth attempt.

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      ALL SAVED! - -
      ALL WELL!!
The Chilian tug "Yeleho" with the
rescued members of the Expedition
on board, steaming into Valparaiso
between the lines of the Chilian 
Navy.

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The tremendous welcome which
was accorded Sir Ernest Shackleton
and his men on their arrival at
Valparaiso.

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Thus ends the story of the
Shackleton Expedition to the
Antarctic - a story of British heroism,
valour and self-sacrifice in the name 
and cause of a country's honour . . .

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. . . The doings of these men will be
written in history as a glorious epic
of the great ice-fields of the South,
and will be remembered as long as 
our Empire exists.

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